The methodology of dissertation research is a general system of methods of scientific knowledge, which the author uses to achieve the goal set at the beginning of the work. It can be said that it is an instrumental basis, on the basis of which the applicant develops the research problem and provides the solution of the main tasks. The choice of appropriate methods is carried out at the stage of preparing the dissertation plan. In the following work, the methodological basis is given in the introduction of the thesis abstract and the thesis project itself. In addition to defining the methods, in the text of the thesis, the author needs to justify the choice of each method used in the work. In the abstract, it is possible to make do with listing the main methods that were used.
The methods used in scientific research are divided into special and general scientific methods. Learn more about this at https://studycrumb.com/conceptual-framework. You can also find a lot of other useful information here.
Special methods of scientific knowledge are referred to when studying a specific branch in science. Most often it is applied in socio-economic disciplines. For example, in sociology it can be a method of studying and analyzing social phenomena, in the legal science – the method of legal modeling, etc. Special methods are formal-logical and concrete-sociological.
The first group of research methods includes methods of generalization and classification, inductive and deductive methods, definition of concepts, logic, analysis, argumentation. The formal-logical method is characterized by strict definiteness of the provisions described and by the application of formal logic techniques through inferences, justifications, proofs, etc.
Concrete sociological research (CSR) is based on the application of sociology’s methods to the study of certain phenomena and processes. Through the use of theoretical and empirical methods, new knowledge is developed to address fundamental and applied questions.
The methods of CSI are divided into the following categories:
- Documentary methods (document analysis);
- interview and survey methods (interviewing respondents and recording the information obtained);
- methods of expert evaluations (work with expert specialists with subsequent processing and study of the obtained opinions).
- In addition to methods for obtaining the necessary information, methods for collecting, analyzing and evaluating this information are also important and can also be divided into three points:
- recording of single events (document analysis, survey, etc.);
- data collection (complete or selective recording);
- information processing and analysis (categorization, description, systematization and statistical analysis, etc.).
General scientific methods are methods that apply to all areas of science. They include experiment, principles of deduction, analogy, comparative analysis, and others.
It is reasonable to divide the general scientific research methods into three groups:
- general logical;
General logical methods include:
- Analogy – carrying out a comparative analysis to gain knowledge about a subject or phenomenon by correlation with similar examples.
- Abstraction – highlighting certain properties in the subject, allowing the exclusion from the field of view of other sides and features.
- Induction – the consideration of different facts for subsequent association in a general conclusion.
- Deduction – the movement of thought from a general view of the subject to a particular isolation of certain elements and characteristics.
Theoretical methods include:
- Ascent from the abstract to the concrete is a method based on a step-by-step transition from abstract knowledge to the concrete, which is traced in the course of modification and development of the object of study.
- Historical method – a comprehensive study of the object or phenomenon under study, in which the logic of its development becomes apparent. It implies a chronological consideration of the object.
- Classification – systematization of information into special categories depending on their general characteristics.
The empirical method includes:
- Modeling – the study of the object on its specially prepared substitute. Analogues can be real – these are models of structures, various handicrafts, prosthetics, etc. and abstract – a system of equations, mentally represented models, etc.
- Observation is a type of cognition aimed at the perception of objects and phenomena through the senses.
- Experiment is a direct impact on the object under study or an artificial recreation of the phenomenon, in which the hypothesis is analyzed.
- Measurement – determining the relationship of a quantity by comparing it to a standard.
- Description – determining characteristics of an object or phenomenon that are captured through observation and measurement.