# Physics High School Textbook – Open Educational Resource

This Open Educational Resource (OER) Physics textbook is written specifically for students to have a reputable source for them to obtain materials and information aligned to Utah Physics Standards. With the hope that teachers use these resources for their students, as they keep records and suggestions on how to improve the book. The book is revised every year, based on teachers feedback and new objectives on improving the book.

Utah’s first OER project was science, and books are available for Grades 3rd to 8th and for Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Earth Sciences. USBE has been working with science for over several years, and would like to recognize the support of the Hewlett Foundation, the CK12 Foundation, and Brigham Young University in development of these materials. Visit the Science Activities webpage to view all of the Online Interactive Activities that are included in each textbook.

CHAPTER 1………………………………………………………………………………………….10
1.1 What is Motion?……………………………………………………………………………….. 12
1.2 Velocity, Time and Acceleration……………………………………………………………. 26
1.3 Frame of Reference…………………………………………………………………………… 37
1.4 Newton’s First Law of Motion ……………………………………………………………… 44
Chapter 1 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………. 46

CHAPTER 2………………………………………………………………………………………….47
2.1 What is Force?…………………………………………………………………………………. 49
2.2 What is Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion?…………………………………………………… 52
2.3 What is Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion? …………………………………………………… 55
Chapter 2 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………. 68

CHAPTER 3………………………………………………………………………………………….69
3.1 Gravitational Force …………………………………………………………………………… 70
3.2 Forces between Charged Particles ……………………………………………………….. 80
Chapter 3 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………. 95
CHAPTER 4……………………………………………………………………………………………99
4.1 Types of Energy………………………………………………………………………………. 101
4.2 Conservation of Energy …………………………………………………………………….. 106
4.3 Energy Transfer……………………………………………………………………………….. 114
Chapter 4 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………. 119

CHAPTER 5………………………………………………………………………………………….121
5.1 Energy Transfer in Waves ………………………………………………………………….. 123
5.2 What is an Electromagnetic Wave? ………………………………………………………. 141
Chapter 5 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………. 151

CHAPTER 6 – PLW.………………………………………………………………………………..154
6.1 TYPES OF FORCES AND FREE BODY DIAGRAMS (PwT 3.1) ……………………….. 156
6.2 MOMENTUM (PwT 2.4)………………………………………………………………………. 160
6.3 WORK AND EFFICIENCY (PwT 4.2)……………………………………………………….. 161
6.4 THERMAL PROPERTIES (PwT 7)…………………………………………………………… 164
6.5 CIRCUITS (PwT 5)…………………………………………………………………………….. 171
Physics Book Glossary ………………………………………………………………………………175

### Sample from Physics – Open Educational Resource

1.1 What is Motion?
Objectives
• Distinguish between distance and displacement.
• Distinguish between speed and velocity.
• Calculate the average velocity of a moving object using data obtained from measurements of position of the object at two or more times.
• Determine and compare the average and instantaneous velocity of an object from data showing its position at given times.
• Collect, graph, and interpret data for position vs. time to describe the motion of an object and compare this motion to the motion of another object.

What is the difference between distance and displacement?
Symbols: Δ anything = final value – initial value (value at time zero)
Scalars:
• d=|Δx1|+|Δx2|
• v=|v|
• Distance (in meters, m)
• Speed (in meters per second, m/s)

Vectors:
• Δx=xf−xi (position displacement)

The symbol Δ (the Greek letter delta) is used to represent “change in”. For example, Δt means change in time, or final time – initial time.

We begin our study of motion in the simplest terms we can: motion that takes place along a straight line, which is called one-dimensional motion. A car traveling east, west, north or south, is an example of such motion. When we imagine a car moving along a road we think of the car as represented by a “particle”. We define the position of a
particle in the same way we would define the position of a point on a number line. Later on we will take up the case of two-dimensional motion; for example, the motion of a baseball through the air.

<end of sample from Physics, an OER textbook>