Menu

Earth Science – Open Educational Resource

Earth ScienceThis Earth Science Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook is written specifically for students to have a reputable source for them to obtain materials and information aligned to Utah Earth Science Standards for Grade 9, or for student’s first year Earth Science (Earth Science I) in highschool.

The book is revised every year, based on teachers’ feedback and new objectives on improving the book. The link provided here for download is directly from the source, Utah Education Network, so as the latest will always be provided.

Utah’s first OER project was science. USBE has been working with science for over several years. USBE would like to recognize the support of the Hewlett Foundation, the CK12 Foundation, and Brigham Young University in the development of these materials. Visit the Science Activities webpage to view all of the Online Interactive Activities that are included in each textbook.

These books as licensed CC-BY-NC.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
1.1 How do we know what we know about the universe? …………………………………13
1.2 What fuels a star? ………………………………………………………………………………23
1.3 What is at the center of the universe? …………………………………………………….31
1.4 What are conditions like on the inner planets? ………………………………………….38
1.5 What are conditions like on the outer planets? ………………………………………….45
1.6 What other objects are in the solar system?………………………………………………52

CHAPTER 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
2.1 How does the internal structure of the earth affect temperature? ………………….59
2.2 What causes earthquakes and volcanoes? ……………………………………………….66
2.3 Does the movement of Earth’s plates affect all living things? ……………………….75

CHAPTER 3 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
3.1 Is the Greenhouse Effect a good thing or a bad thing?……………………………….84
3.2 Why is it winter in the southern hemisphere and summer in the northern
hemisphere?………………………………………………………………………………………….88
3.3 What makes wind blow? ……………………………………………………………………..90
3.4 Why were winds important to early explorers? …………………………………………93
3.5 What is ozone and why are we concerned about the hole in the ozone layer? …95
3.6 What causes the change in the weather?…………………………………………………98
3.7 How do they forecast the weather? ……………………………………………………….103
3.8 What causes severe weather? ………………………………………………………………107
3.9 What are El Nino and La Nina? ……………………………………………………………..112
3.10 How has Earth’s climate changed? ……………………………………………………….115
3.11 What causes climate change? ……………………………………………………………..118
3.12 How does human activity affect the carbon cycle? …………………………………..122

CHAPTER 4 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
4.1 Why can’t we drink most of the water on Earth?……………………………………….130
4.2 How do we use water? ……………………………………………………………………….135
4.3 What makes water unique? …………………………………………………………………139
4.4 What is a freshwater ecosystem?…………………………………………………………..142
4.5 Was there always water on earth? …………………………………………………………145
10
4.6 What causes water to move in the ocean? ………………………………………………149

CHAPTER 5 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 156
5.1 How do Earth’s systems interact?…………………………………………………………..158
5.2 Do satellites help predict earthquakes? …………………………………………………..160
5.3 Will the next war be over water? …………………………………………………………..162
5.4 Will we run out of soil and water? …………………………………………………………166
5.5 Will we run out of sunlight?………………………………………………………………….169
5.6 What role do scientists play? ………………………………………………………………..172
5.7 Can we prevent natural hazards?……………………………………………………………175
5.8 Do humans contribute to natural disasters? ……………………………………………..182
5.9 Can we predict earthquakes? ………………………………………………………………..187

Sample from Earth Science – Open Educational Resource

1.1 How do we know what we know about the universe?
The study of the universe is called cosmology. Cosmologists study the structure and changes in the present universe. The universe contains all of the star systems, galaxies, gas and dust, and all the matter and energy that exist. The universe also includes all of space and time.

The part of the entire universe that we can see (because light from objects has had time to reach us) is called the observable universe. Evolution of Human Understanding of the Universe What did the ancient Greeks recognize as the universe? In their model, the universe contained Earth at the center, the Sun, the Moon, five planets, and a sphere to which all the stars were attached.

This idea held for many centuries until new ideas and better observing instruments allowed people to recognize that Earth is not the center of the universe. Galileo’s telescope revealed four moons orbiting Jupiter (not Earth), the phases of Venus, the mountains of the Moon, and many more stars than are visible to the naked eye. More importantly, Galileo’s experiments established the principle of inertia which countered the physical arguments the Greeks used against a rotating and moving Earth.

Earth Science
Timeline of Cosmological Theories

4th century BCE — Aristotle, building on the ideas of earlier astronomers, proposes that the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars revolve around a stationary Earth. This is known as the geocentric theory, meaning that the universe revolves around Earth. 2nd century AD — Ptolemy publishes a book that describes a mathematical procedure used to calculate future positions of the Sun, Moon, and visible planets in the sky. It reaffirms that all these objects move around a stationary Earth. To account for the retrograde motion of Mars, his system uses small circles (epicycles) revolving around larger circles (deferents).

<end of sample>

This Earth Science textbook is perfect for school or homeschool use, as a reference for projects, or as a class course book for teachers and students.

See more Books under Science Category Below

 

Dinosaurs – A comprehensive history - A comprehensive history of dinosaurs including the history of evolution and different types of dinosaurs. Check out the sample pages below, and download the full pdf or read online by selecting the buttons below the post.  Spread the love
The Mighty Solar Panel – A story of solar energy - Have you ever seen a solar panel farm? Jack hadn’t, but the first time he did, he ended up going on the most amazing adventure. With the help of his friend, Sunny the sunbeam, Jack is taken on a journey of discovery which teaches him all about how rays of sunlight are turned into the ...
There’s a Hole in my Galaxy - In the year 2563 Maya and her friend Ava borrow the family space ship for a trip to Pluto. Halfway there they have a battle with a black hole where they are almost sucked in. Along the way, we learn lots of facts about black holes. Sample text from There’s a Hole in my Galaxy ...
Why Do Sunflowers Love the Sun? - Viveka wants to paint the sunflowers near her house, but they keep moving. Follow this story to find out the mystery of how the sunflowers change throughout the day. Sample Text from Why Do Sunflowers Love the Sun? Viveka wants to paint the sunflower field near her house. She looks at the sunflowers carefully one ...
Eye Can See – From magnifying glases to telescopes - Eye Can See details a group of children’s visit to their parent’s laboratory and all the magnifying equipment they find. From magnifying glass to microscope, binoculars to a telescope, this book teaches children about all things magnifying. Sample Text From Eye Can See School is closed for summer. Every day Chanda, Tinku and Motu have ...
Lost in the Internet - Kunal’s Mum warned him against watching too much on the internet lest he gets sucked in, but he doesn’t listen. Kunal gets suddenly sucked into the internet and goes on a journey of discovery. Sample Text From Lost in the Internet Kunal loved the Internet. He was always asking Mummy for her phone so he ...
Ma, Is That You? – Security made simple - Four friends have a secret meeting place, but someone keeps trying to get in. Is it Ma like the person says, or is it a scary monster? The group has 3 forms of security to protect their secret meeting place. This book provides a nice simple explanation of security and why it’s important in a ...
How to Catch the Wind – STEM fun - In How to Catch the Wind – STEM fun we learn how the wind is used to make electricity.  A Simple book with an easy to understand explanation of wind power. Sample Text from How to Catch the Wind – STEM fun Air is always around us. Moving air is called wind. When wind blows, ...
The Mighty Tethys Sea – Archaeology - The Mighty Tethys Sea explains how the continents split apart, from the mighty Gondwana and the mighty Tethys sea, to what they are now, and how the Himalayas were formed. Discover how once there were seas where there now are mountains, and how it all changed into the shape of the earth today. Author: Juvena ...
Tig’s World – An important question - In Tig’s World Tig asks her mom who is a scientist and her dad who is a writer what happens to the people on the bottom side of the earth and why they don’t fall off. Whose answer is right? Author: Sam Wilson, Illustrator: Dorian Dutrieux Sample Text from Tig’s World Tig’s mom is a ...

See more Textbooks Below

 

grade 1 workbooks grade 1 textbooks Grade 1 Workbooks - This post contains all our Grade 1 and Kindergarten (Pre-K, K) textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets. Enjoy! ****** Grade 1 English Language and Arts Workbooks All our kindergarten and grade 1 English Language and Arts (ELA, EFL, ESL, grammar, art, music) workbooks and open education resources. Grade 1 to 2 ELA Activity Books and Teachers Guides ...
grade 2 workbooks grade 2 textbooks Grade 2 Workbooks - This post contains all our grade 2 free school textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets, perfect for classroom or homeschool use. Enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 2 Grade 2 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects.   Grade 1 to 2 ELA Activity Workbooks and Teacher Guides Publisher: Open Schools BC ...
Grade 3 school books Grade 3 Workbooks - This post contains all our grade 3 free school textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets. These free school resources and OER textbooks are perfect for classroom or homeschool use. Enjoy! Grade 3 English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 3 English language and arts (ELA), including EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects.   English Banana Big ...
Grade 4 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 4, perfect for classroom and homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 4 Grade 4 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects.   Engage NY – Grade 4 English Resources US CCSS  Engage NY Grade 4 English Language ...
Grade 5 textbooks Grade 5 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks, workbooks, activity books, and tests for Grade 5, perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 5 Grade 5 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects   Grade 5 English Textbooks India * NCERT/CBSE Grade 5 English ...
grade 6 textbooks Grade 6 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 6, perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 6 Grade 6 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects Grade 6 English Textbooks India * NCERT/CBSE Grade 6 English Textbook, Honeysuckle, and supplementary reader A Pact ...
Grade 7 textbooks Grade 7 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 7, these open education resources are perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 7 Grade 7 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects Engage NY – Grade 7 English Resources US CCSS  Engage NY ...
Grade 8 textbooks Grade 8 Textbooks - This post contains all our free grade 8 textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets. These open education resources are perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! ****** Grade 8 ELA Textbooks Below are all our English Language and Arts free school textbooks. Engage NY – Grade 8 English Resources US CCSS  Engage NY Grade 8 English Language resources, ...
grade 9 textbooks Grade 9 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 9, awesome free high-school OER textbooks for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 9 This section includes all our Grade 9 textbooks in English (EFL, ESL, EAL), and all mediums of arts including music. Writing on the Run Grade ...
grade 10 textbooks Grade 10 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 10 free textbooks, perfect for classroom and homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 10 Note – for US Subjects which cover Grades 9 to 12 please see Grade 9 – https://freekidsbooks.org/grade-9-textbooks/ Engage NY – Grade 10 English Resources US CCSS  Engage NY ...

Sponsored Links:

Note – if you sign up through these links, it doesn’t cost you any extra, but FKB receives a small donation, which helps us move towards our aim of
FREE Hardcopies!  

All our posts are checked by Grammarly, the FREE online grammar checker (We still receive a donation even if you only sign up for the free account :-):

This site is hosted by Bluehost:

Leave a comment (it won’t be public) if you want help getting your own website cost-effectively.  

 
Spread the love

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

....